AI and Cybersecurity Research Publications

2020

Roodt JH, Leenen L, van Vuuren J. Modelling Of The Complex Societal Problem Of Establishing A National Energy Sufficiency Competence . In: 23rd International Conference on Information Fusion. ; 2020.

Complex societal problems require a multi-disciplinary and multi-method approach to develop models that can support the development of solutions. General morphological analysis is a qualitative method to extract information from experts through facilitation and the use of customized software. Ontologies provide semantic representation of knowledge bases together with automated reasoning capabilities. These two approaches, combined with the use of concept maps, provide an integrated approach which can be used to understand complex and ill-structured problem domains and to aid in business modelling, strategy and scenario development and finally, decision-making. The resulting models are subjective constructs reflecting the knowledge and understanding of the analysts. Subsequent synthesis of new understanding and decisions rely on the robust validation and verification of the underlying logic and assumptions of the conceptual models. Morphological Analysis and ontological constructs are applied in terms of an integrated Morphological Ontology Design Engineering methodology (MODE), which is based on Design Science. The paper is developed around the opportunity of scoping the applied research competence required to support a nation’s progress toward energy sufficiency. This paper presents a complex fused model for national energy sufficiency in New Zealand. The approach can be used to address other ill- structured complex societal problems.

@{375,
  author = {JH Roodt and Louise Leenen and Jansen van Vuuren},
  title = {Modelling Of The Complex Societal Problem Of  Establishing A National Energy Sufficiency Competence},
  abstract = {Complex societal problems require a multi-disciplinary and multi-method approach to develop models that can support the development of solutions. General morphological analysis is a qualitative method to extract information from experts through facilitation and the use of customized software. Ontologies provide semantic representation of knowledge bases together with automated reasoning capabilities. These two approaches, combined with the use of concept maps, provide an integrated approach which can be used to understand complex and ill-structured problem domains and to aid in business modelling, strategy and scenario development and finally, decision-making. The resulting models are subjective constructs reflecting the knowledge and understanding of the analysts. Subsequent synthesis of new understanding and decisions rely on the robust validation and verification of the underlying logic and assumptions of the conceptual models. 
Morphological Analysis and ontological constructs are applied in terms of an integrated Morphological Ontology Design Engineering methodology (MODE), which is based on Design Science. The paper is developed around the opportunity of scoping the applied research competence required to support a nation’s progress toward energy sufficiency. This paper presents a complex fused model for national energy sufficiency in New Zealand. The approach can be used to address other ill- structured complex societal problems.},
  year = {2020},
  journal = {23rd International Conference on Information Fusion},
  pages = {880 - 887},
  month = {06/07-09/07},
  isbn = {978-0-578-64709-8},
}
Jafta Y, Leenen L, Chan P. An Ontology for the South African Protection of Personal Information Act. In: The 19th European Conference on Cyber Warfare and Security. UK: Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited; 2020.

The protection and management of data, and especially personal information, is becoming an issue of critical importance in both the business environment and in general society. Various institutions have justifiable reasons to gather the personal information of individuals but they are required to comply with any legislation involving the processing of such data. Organisations thus face legal and other repercussions should personal information be breached or treated negligently. Most countries have adopted privacy and data protection laws or are in the process of enacting such laws. In South Africa, the Protection of Privacy Information Act (POPIA) was formally adopted in 2013 but it is yet to be implemented. When the implementation of the Act is announced, role players (responsible parties and data subjects) affected by POPIA will have a grace period of a year to become compliant and/or understand how the Act will affect them. One example of a mandate that follows from POPIA is data breach notification. This paper presents the development of a prototype ontology on POPIA to promote transparency and education of affected data subjects and organisations including government departments. The ontology provides a semantic representation of a knowledge base for the regulations in the POPIA and how it affects these role players. The POPIA is closely aligned with the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), and the POPIA ontology is inspired by similar ontologies developed for the GDPR.

@{374,
  author = {Y Jafta and Louise Leenen and P Chan},
  title = {An Ontology for the South African Protection of Personal Information Act},
  abstract = {The protection and management of data, and especially personal information, is becoming an issue of critical importance in both the business environment and in general society. Various institutions have justifiable reasons to gather the personal information of individuals but they are required to comply with any legislation involving the processing of such data. Organisations thus face legal and other repercussions should personal information be breached or treated negligently. Most countries have adopted privacy and data protection laws or are in the process of enacting such laws. In South Africa, the Protection of Privacy Information Act (POPIA) was formally adopted in 2013 but it is yet to be implemented. When the implementation of the Act is announced, role players (responsible parties and data subjects) affected by POPIA will have a grace period of a year to become compliant and/or understand how the Act will affect them. One example of a mandate that follows from POPIA is data breach notification. This paper presents the development of a prototype ontology on POPIA to promote transparency and education of affected data subjects and organisations including government departments. The ontology provides a semantic representation of a knowledge base for the regulations in the POPIA and how it affects these role players. The POPIA is closely aligned with the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), and the POPIA ontology is inspired by similar ontologies developed for the GDPR.},
  year = {2020},
  journal = {The 19th European Conference on Cyber Warfare and Security},
  pages = {158 - 176},
  month = {25/06 - 26/06},
  publisher = {Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited},
  address = {UK},
  isbn = {978-1-912764-61-7},
}
van Vuuren J, Leenen L. Proving It Is the Data That Is Biased, Not the Algorithm Through a Recent South African Online Case Study. Journal of Information Warfare. 2020;19(3).

In the recent past, some Internet users questioned the reliability of online news, but not necessarily the role of search engines in programming public discourse. In 2018, South African Twitter users accused Google of peddling misinformation when Google Image searches for the phrase “squatter camps in South Africa” displayed images of white squatter camps. Many ana-lysts blamed Google’s algorithm for displaying bias. In this article, the authors use this example in comparing the findings of six different search engines to counter this argument. Search engines that are diverse in their scope and origin are used to prove that is it not the algorithm, but rather the data that is biased.

@article{373,
  author = {Jansen van Vuuren and Louise Leenen},
  title = {Proving It Is the Data That Is Biased, Not the Algorithm Through a Recent South African Online Case Study},
  abstract = {In the recent past, some Internet users questioned the reliability of online news, but not necessarily the role of search engines in programming public discourse. In 2018, South African Twitter users accused Google of peddling misinformation when Google Image searches for the phrase “squatter camps in South Africa” displayed images of white squatter camps. Many ana-lysts blamed Google’s algorithm for displaying bias. In this article, the authors use this example in comparing the findings of six different search engines to counter this argument. Search engines that are diverse in their scope and origin are used to prove that is it not the algorithm, but rather the data that is biased.},
  year = {2020},
  journal = {Journal of Information Warfare},
  volume = {19},
  pages = {118-129},
  issue = {3},
  publisher = {Peregrine Technical Solutions},
  address = {Virginia, USA},
  isbn = {1445-3312},
}
van Vuuren J, Leenen L, Pieterse P. Development and Implementation of Cybercrime Strategies in Africa with Specific Reference to South Africa. Journal of Information Warfare. 2020;19(3).

Cybercrime is increasing at a rate few individuals would have predicted. IBM estimated in 2016 that, in 2019, the cost of cybercrime would reach $2 trillion, a threefold increase from the 2015 estimate of $500 billion. The growth of the Internet and the rapid development of technology provide enormous economic and social benefits but at the same time provide platforms for cybercriminals to exploit. Organised crime is using more sophisticated techniques, which require highly skilled and specialised law enforcement responses. One example is the use of cryptocurrencies, which makes it easier for cybercriminals to hide their proceeds. Regulatory measures often lag behind. In this paper, the authors give an overview of the growing threat of cybercrime with a specific focus on high levels of cybercrime in Africa. The focus then turns to the development of national cybercrime strategies and implementation. Results from literature and the authors’ analyses of two cyber indices to measure the capabilities and capacities of countries are combined to present a framework for the development of a cybercrime strategy, and in particular, a strategy customised for African countries.

@article{372,
  author = {Jansen van Vuuren and Louise Leenen and P Pieterse},
  title = {Development and Implementation of Cybercrime Strategies in Africa with Specific Reference to South Africa},
  abstract = {Cybercrime is increasing at a rate few individuals would have predicted. IBM estimated in 2016 that, in 2019, the cost of cybercrime would reach $2 trillion, a threefold increase from the 2015 estimate of $500 billion. The growth of the Internet and the rapid development of technology provide enormous economic and social benefits but at the same time provide platforms for cybercriminals to exploit. Organised crime is using more sophisticated techniques, which require highly skilled and specialised law enforcement responses. One example is the use of cryptocurrencies, which makes it easier for cybercriminals to hide their proceeds. Regulatory measures often lag behind.
In this paper, the authors give an overview of the growing threat of cybercrime with a specific focus on high levels of cybercrime in Africa. The focus then turns to the development of national cybercrime strategies and implementation. Results from literature and the authors’ analyses of two cyber indices to measure the capabilities and capacities of countries are combined to present a framework for the development of a cybercrime strategy, and in particular, a strategy customised for African countries.},
  year = {2020},
  journal = {Journal of Information Warfare},
  volume = {19},
  pages = {83 - 101},
  issue = {3},
  publisher = {Peregrine Technical Solutions},
  address = {Virginia, USA},
  isbn = {1445-3312},
}
Ramluckan T, van Niekerk B, Leenen L. Cybersecurity and Information Warfare Research in South Africa: Challenges and Proposed Solutions. Journal of Information Warfare. 2020;19(1).

Cybersecurity is often incorrectly assumed to be a purely technical field; however, there are numerous multidisciplinary aspects, such as, for example, human factors, legal, and governance issues. The broad scope, combined with other historical or bureaucratic factors, can provide challenges to researchers and students where appropriate methodologies do not necessarily conform to traditional disciplinary norms; prejudice against research approaches can occur as a result of ‘old school thought’. This paper aims to investigate the South African national and institutional perspectives for higher education and research, identify challenges, and propose solutions to facilitate multidisciplinary research into cybersecurity and Information Warfare (IW) in South Africa.

@article{371,
  author = {T Ramluckan and B van Niekerk and Louise Leenen},
  title = {Cybersecurity and Information Warfare Research in South Africa: Challenges and Proposed Solutions},
  abstract = {Cybersecurity is often incorrectly assumed to be a purely technical field; however, there are numerous multidisciplinary aspects, such as, for example, human factors, legal, and governance issues. The broad scope, combined with other historical or bureaucratic factors, can provide challenges to researchers and students where appropriate methodologies do not necessarily conform to traditional disciplinary norms; prejudice against research approaches can occur as a result of ‘old school thought’. This paper aims to investigate the South African national and institutional perspectives for higher education and research, identify challenges, and propose solutions to facilitate multidisciplinary research into cybersecurity and Information Warfare (IW) in South Africa.},
  year = {2020},
  journal = {Journal of Information Warfare},
  volume = {19},
  pages = {80-95},
  issue = {1},
  publisher = {Peregrine Technical Solutions},
  address = {Virginia, USA},
  isbn = {ISSN 1445-3312},
}
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