AI for Development & Innovation Research Publications

2022

Gerber A. The Detection of Conversation Patterns in South African Political Tweets through Social Network Analysis. Communications in Computer and Information Science. 2022;1551. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-95070-5_2.

Within complex societies, social communities are distinguishable based on social interactions. The interactions can be between members or communities and can range from simple conversations between family members and friends to complex interactions that represent the flow of money, information, or power. In our modern digital society, social media platforms present unique opportunities to study social networks through social network analysis (SNA). Social media platforms are usually representative of a specific user group, and Twitter, a microblogging platform, is characterised by the fast distribution of news and often provocative opinions, as well as social mobilizing, which makes it popular for political interactions. The nature of Twitter generates a valuable SNA data source for investigating political conversations and communities, and in related research, specific archetypal conversation patterns between communities were identified that allow for unique interpretations of conversations about a topic. This paper reports on a study where social network analysis (SNA) was performed on Twitter data about political events in 2021 in South Africa. The purpose was to determine which distinct conversation patterns could be detected in datasets collected, as well as what could be derived from these patterns given the South African political landscape and perceptions. The results indicate that conversations in the South African political landscape are less polarized than expected. Conversations often manifest broadcast patterns from key influencers in addition to tight crowds or community clusters. Tight crowds or community clusters indicate intense conversation across communities that exhibits diverse opinions and perspectives on a topic. The results may be of value for researchers that aim to understand social media conversations within the South African society.

@article{434,
  author = {Aurona Gerber},
  title = {The Detection of Conversation Patterns in South African Political Tweets through Social Network Analysis},
  abstract = {Within complex societies, social communities are distinguishable based on social interactions. The interactions can be between members or communities and can range from simple conversations between family members and friends to complex interactions that represent the flow of money, information, or power. In our modern digital society, social media platforms present unique opportunities to study social networks through social network analysis (SNA). Social media platforms are usually representative of a specific user group, and Twitter, a microblogging platform, is characterised by the fast distribution of news and often provocative opinions, as well as social mobilizing, which makes it popular for political interactions. The nature of Twitter generates a valuable SNA data source for investigating political conversations and communities, and in related research, specific archetypal conversation patterns between communities were identified that allow for unique interpretations of conversations about a topic. This paper reports on a study where social network analysis (SNA) was performed on Twitter data about political events in 2021 in South Africa. The purpose was to determine which distinct conversation patterns could be detected in datasets collected, as well as what could be derived from these patterns given the South African political landscape and perceptions. The results indicate that conversations in the South African political landscape are less polarized than expected. Conversations often manifest broadcast patterns from key influencers in addition to tight crowds or community clusters. Tight crowds or community clusters indicate intense conversation across communities that exhibits diverse opinions and perspectives on a topic. The results may be of value for researchers that aim to understand social media conversations within the South African society.},
  year = {2022},
  journal = {Communications in Computer and Information Science},
  volume = {1551},
  pages = {15-31},
  publisher = {Springer},
  address = {Cham},
  isbn = {978-3-030-95070-5},
  url = {https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-95070-5_2},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-030-95070-5_2},
}

2021

Eybers S, Gerber A. A Preliminary Investigation into the Role of Virtual Sport Training Technology as Emotional Coping Mechanism During a National Pandemic Lockdown. Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems. 2021;186. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-66093-2_18.

The COVID-19 pandemic and the subsequent response by governments to introduce national lockdown regulations have confined individuals to their residential premises. As a result, no recreational or sport activities are allowed outside the (often small) boundaries of family homes, a situation often rapidly introducing social isolation. Research has proven that emotional coping mechanisms, such as sport, can lower the stressful and uncertainty burden on individuals. However, without the availability of this coping mechanism, many individuals have been forced to use virtual sport training technology to keep active. This preliminary quantitative study investigated the role of technology, in particular virtual sport training technology (if any) by cyclists as emotional coping mechanism during a period of national lockdown. The results of an online survey indicated that sport, in general, has always been an emotional coping mechanism during normal challenging situations but that slightly more respondents used sport as mechanism during the lockdown period. Respondents indicated that virtual cycling training technology enabled them to continue with using their normal coping mechanism even in a period of national lockdown. One of the benefits of a virtual training environment is the ability to socialize by riding with virtual team members. Surprisingly, the number of cyclists who preferred riding alone in the virtual cycling environment was slightly more than the cyclists who preferred to join scheduled rides with virtual team members. The research is the first step towards an in-depth investigation into the adoption of technology as an emotional coping mechanism in stressful environments.

@article{439,
  author = {Sunet Eybers and Aurona Gerber},
  title = {A Preliminary Investigation into the Role of Virtual Sport Training Technology as Emotional Coping Mechanism During a National Pandemic Lockdown},
  abstract = {The COVID-19 pandemic and the subsequent response by governments to introduce national lockdown regulations have confined individuals to their residential premises. As a result, no recreational or sport activities are allowed outside the (often small) boundaries of family homes, a situation often rapidly introducing social isolation. Research has proven that emotional coping mechanisms, such as sport, can lower the stressful and uncertainty burden on individuals. However, without the availability of this coping mechanism, many individuals have been forced to use virtual sport training technology to keep active. This preliminary quantitative study investigated the role of technology, in particular virtual sport training technology (if any) by cyclists as emotional coping mechanism during a period of national lockdown. The results of an online survey indicated that sport, in general, has always been an emotional coping mechanism during normal challenging situations but that slightly more respondents used sport as mechanism during the lockdown period. Respondents indicated that virtual cycling training technology enabled them to continue with using their normal coping mechanism even in a period of national lockdown. One of the benefits of a virtual training environment is the ability to socialize by riding with virtual team members. Surprisingly, the number of cyclists who preferred riding alone in the virtual cycling environment was slightly more than the cyclists who preferred to join scheduled rides with virtual team members. The research is the first step towards an in-depth investigation into the adoption of technology as an emotional coping mechanism in stressful environments.},
  year = {2021},
  journal = {Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems},
  volume = {186},
  pages = {186-194},
  publisher = {Springer},
  address = {Cham},
  isbn = {978-3-030-66093-2},
  url = {https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-66093-2_18},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-030-66093-2_18},
}
Gerber A, Strachan S. Network Patterns in South African Election Tweets. Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems. 2021;186. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-66093-2_1.

Social communities play a significant role in understanding complex societies, from communities formed by support interactions between friends and family to community structures that depict the flow of information, money and power. With the emergence of the internet, the nature of social networks changed because communities could form disassociated from physical location, and social network analysis (SNA) on social media such as Twitter and Facebook emerged as a distinct research field. Studies suggest that Twitter feeds have a significant influence on the views and opinions of society, and subsequently the formation of communities. This paper reports on a study where social network analysis was performed on Twitter feeds in South Africa around the 2019 elections to detect distinct patterns within the overall network. In the datasets that were analysed, a specific network pattern namely Broadcast Networks were observed. A Broadcast Network typically reflects central hubs such as media houses, political parties or influencers whose messages are repeated without interaction or discussion. Our results indicate that there were few discussions and interactions and that messages were broadcasted from central nodes even though the general experience of Twitter users during this time was of intense discussions and differences in opinion.

@article{438,
  author = {Aurona Gerber and Stephanie Strachan},
  title = {Network Patterns in South African Election Tweets},
  abstract = {Social communities play a significant role in understanding complex societies, from communities formed by support interactions between friends and family to community structures that depict the flow of information, money and power. With the emergence of the internet, the nature of social networks changed because communities could form disassociated from physical location, and social network analysis (SNA) on social media such as Twitter and Facebook emerged as a distinct research field. Studies suggest that Twitter feeds have a significant influence on the views and opinions of society, and subsequently the formation of communities. This paper reports on a study where social network analysis was performed on Twitter feeds in South Africa around the 2019 elections to detect distinct patterns within the overall network. In the datasets that were analysed, a specific network pattern namely Broadcast Networks were observed. A Broadcast Network typically reflects central hubs such as media houses, political parties or influencers whose messages are repeated without interaction or discussion. Our results indicate that there were few discussions and interactions and that messages were broadcasted from central nodes even though the general experience of Twitter users during this time was of intense discussions and differences in opinion.},
  year = {2021},
  journal = {Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems},
  volume = {186},
  pages = {3-13},
  publisher = {Springer},
  address = {Cham},
  isbn = {978-3-030-66093-2},
  url = {https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-66093-2_1},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-030-66093-2_1},
}
Marimuthu T, van der Merwe A, Gerber A. A systematic literature review of essential enterprise architecture management dimensions. Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems. 2021;235. doi:10.1007/978-981-16-2377-6_36.

Many organisations turn to enterprise architecture (EA) to assist with the alignment of business and information technology. While some of these organisations succeed in the development and implementation of EA, many of them fail to manage EA after implementation. Because of the specific focus on the management of EA during and after the initial implementation, the enterprise architecture management (EAM) field is developed. EAM is characterised by many dimensions or elements. It is a challenge to select the dimensions that should be managed and that are vital for successful EA practice. In this study, we executed a systematic literature review (SLR) of primary EA and EAM literature with the aim of identifying dimensions regarded as key areas of EAM. The main contribution of this work is a concept map of the essential EAM dimensions with their relationships. The results of the SLR indicate that dimensions that used to be considered important or seemed to be the most essential for EA, such as frameworks, EA principles and reference models, are no longer emphasised as strongly and more focus is placed on people, skills, communication and governance when considering EAM literature and EAM maturity.

@article{437,
  author = {Trishan Marimuthu and Alta van der Merwe and Aurona Gerber},
  title = {A systematic literature review of essential enterprise architecture management dimensions},
  abstract = {Many organisations turn to enterprise architecture (EA) to assist with the alignment of business and information technology. While some of these organisations succeed in the development and implementation of EA, many of them fail to manage EA after implementation. Because of the specific focus on the management of EA during and after the initial implementation, the enterprise architecture management (EAM) field is developed. EAM is characterised by many dimensions or elements. It is a challenge to select the dimensions that should be managed and that are vital for successful EA practice. In this study, we executed a systematic literature review (SLR) of primary EA and EAM literature with the aim of identifying dimensions regarded as key areas of EAM. The main contribution of this work is a concept map of the essential EAM dimensions with their relationships. The results of the SLR indicate that dimensions that used to be considered important or seemed to be the most essential for EA, such as frameworks, EA principles and reference models, are no longer emphasised as strongly and more focus is placed on people, skills, communication and governance when considering EAM literature and EAM maturity.},
  year = {2021},
  journal = {Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems},
  volume = {235},
  pages = {381-391},
  publisher = {Springer},
  address = {Singapore},
  isbn = {978-981-16-2377-6},
  url = {https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-981-16-2377-6_36},
  doi = {10.1007/978-981-16-2377-6_36},
}
Gerber A, Eybers S. Converting to Inclusive Online Flipped Classrooms in Response to Covid-19 Lockdown. South African Journal of Higher Education. 2021;35(4). doi:10.20853/35-4-4285.

The global Covid-19 pandemic caused havoc in higher education teaching routines and several residential institutions encouraged instructors to convert existing modules to flipped classrooms as part of an online, blended learning strategy. Even though this seems a reasonable request, instructors straightaway encountered challenges which include a vague concept of what an online flipped classroom entails within a higher education context, a lack of guidelines for converting an existing module, facilitating learner engagement as well as unique challenges for inclusion of all learners in a digitally divided developing country in Covid-19 lockdown. In order to respond, we embarked on a study to identify the distinguishing characteristics of flipped classrooms to understand the as-is and to-be scenarios using a systematic literature review. The characteristics were used to develop of design considerations to convert to an online flipped classroom for higher education taking our diverse learner profiles into account. We subsequently converted a short module in an information systems department and shortly report on our experience.

@article{436,
  author = {Aurona Gerber and Sunet Eybers},
  title = {Converting to Inclusive Online Flipped Classrooms in Response to Covid-19 Lockdown},
  abstract = {The global Covid-19 pandemic caused havoc in higher education teaching routines and several residential institutions encouraged instructors to convert existing modules to flipped classrooms as part of an online, blended learning strategy. Even though this seems a reasonable request, instructors straightaway encountered challenges which include a vague concept of what an online flipped classroom entails within a higher education context, a lack of guidelines for converting an existing module, facilitating learner engagement as well as unique challenges for inclusion of all learners in a digitally divided developing country in Covid-19 lockdown. In order to respond, we embarked on a study to identify the distinguishing characteristics of flipped classrooms to understand the as-is and to-be scenarios using a systematic literature review. The characteristics were used to develop of design considerations to convert to an online flipped classroom for higher education taking our diverse learner profiles into account. We subsequently converted a short module in an information systems department and shortly report on our experience.},
  year = {2021},
  journal = {South African Journal of Higher Education},
  volume = {35},
  pages = {34-57},
  issue = {4},
  isbn = {1753-5913},
  url = {https://journals.co.za/doi/10.20853/35-4-4285},
  doi = {10.20853/35-4-4285},
}
Luzipo S, Gerber A. A Systematic Literature Review of Blockchain Consensus Protocols. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 2021;12896. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-85447-8_48.

Blockchain is the underlying technology behind Bitcoin, the first digital currency, and due to the rapid growth of Bitcoin, there is significant interest in blockchain as the enabler of digital currencies due to the consensus distributed ledger model. The rise and the success of alternative cryptocurrencies such as Ethereum and Ripple has supported the development of blockchain technology, but the performance of blockchain applications has been documented as a significant obstacle for adoption. At the core of blockchain is a consensus protocol, which plays a key role in maintaining the safety, performance and efficiency of the blockchain network. Several consensus protocols exist, and the use of the right consensus protocol is crucial to ensure adequate performance of any blockchain application. However, there is a lack of documented overview studies even though there is agreement in the literature about the importance and understanding of blockchain consensus protocols. In this study, we adopt a systematic literature review (SLR) to investigate the current status of consensus protocols used for blockchain together with the identified limitations of these protocols. The results of this study include an overview of different consensus protocols as well as consensus protocol limitations and will be of value for any practitioner or scholar that is interested in blockchain applications.

@article{435,
  author = {Sikho Luzipo and Aurona Gerber},
  title = {A Systematic Literature Review of Blockchain Consensus Protocols},
  abstract = {Blockchain is the underlying technology behind Bitcoin, the first digital currency, and due to the rapid growth of Bitcoin, there is significant interest in blockchain as the enabler of digital currencies due to the consensus distributed ledger model. The rise and the success of alternative cryptocurrencies such as Ethereum and Ripple has supported the development of blockchain technology, but the performance of blockchain applications has been documented as a significant obstacle for adoption. At the core of blockchain is a consensus protocol, which plays a key role in maintaining the safety, performance and efficiency of the blockchain network. Several consensus protocols exist, and the use of the right consensus protocol is crucial to ensure adequate performance of any blockchain application. However, there is a lack of documented overview studies even though there is agreement in the literature about the importance and understanding of blockchain consensus protocols. In this study, we adopt a systematic literature review (SLR) to investigate the current status of consensus protocols used for blockchain together with the identified limitations of these protocols. The results of this study include an overview of different consensus protocols as well as consensus protocol limitations and will be of value for any practitioner or scholar that is interested in blockchain applications.},
  year = {2021},
  journal = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
  volume = {12896},
  pages = {580-595},
  publisher = {Springer},
  address = {Cham},
  isbn = {978-3-030-85447-8},
  url = {https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-85447-8_48},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-030-85447-8_48},
}

2020

van der Merwe A, Smuts H, Gerber A. Data Collection in an Information Systems Design Science Research Project. In: 49th Annual Conference of the Southern African Computer Lecturers' Association (SACLA). Online: SACLA 2020 Organising Committee, Rhodes University, South Africa; 2020. https://sacla2020.ru.ac.za/docs/SACLA2020Proceedings.pdf.

Design science research (DSR) is a popular research approach used in information systems for the design, development and evaluation of artefacts. There is some guidance in the literature on how to conduct DSR as an approach to find solutions for wicked problems. Some of the areas with which students who are involved in DSR struggle are the confirmation of the problem and design and evaluation of the artefact. Hevner et al. [1] presented their conceptual model for DSR in 2004 and in this paper we use this seminal work as guidance to illustrate where there is potential for inclusion of data collection activities to address these three areas of concern. We also indicate the nature of the data collection that can be used during these phases. Lastly, we use some cases studies to map the areas that we have identified to these case studies as illustration.

@{452,
  author = {Alta van der Merwe and Hanlie Smuts and Aurona Gerber},
  title = {Data Collection in an Information Systems Design Science Research Project},
  abstract = {Design science research (DSR) is a popular research approach used in information systems for the design, development and evaluation of artefacts. There is some guidance in the literature on how to conduct DSR as an approach to find solutions for wicked problems. Some of the areas with which students who are involved in DSR struggle are the confirmation of the problem and design and evaluation of the artefact. Hevner et al. [1] presented their conceptual model for DSR in 2004 and in this paper we use this seminal work as guidance to illustrate where there is potential for inclusion of data collection activities to
address these three areas of concern. We also indicate the nature of the data collection that can be used during these phases. Lastly, we use some cases studies to map the areas that we have identified to these case studies as illustration.},
  year = {2020},
  journal = {49th Annual Conference of the Southern African Computer Lecturers' Association (SACLA)},
  pages = {36-48},
  month = {06/07-09/07},
  publisher = {SACLA 2020 Organising Committee, Rhodes University, South Africa},
  address = {Online},
  isbn = {978-1-990964-40-4},
  url = {https://sacla2020.ru.ac.za/docs/SACLA2020Proceedings.pdf},
}
Gerber A, le Roux P, Kearney C, van der Merwe A. The Zachman Framework for Enterprise Architecture: An Explanatory IS Theory. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 2020;12066. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-44999-5_32.

Enterprise Architecture (EA) has had an interesting and often controversial history since its inception in the late 80’s by pioneers such as John Zachman. Zachman proposed the Zachman Framework for Enterprise Architecture (ZFEA), a descriptive, holistic representation of an enterprise for the purposes of providing insights and understanding. Some scholars claim that EA is an imperative to ensure successful business structures or business-IT alignment, or more recently with Enterprise Architecture Management (EAM), to manage required organizational transformation. However, EA initiatives within companies are often costly and the expected return on investment is not realized. In fact, Gartner recently indicated in their 2018 Enterprise Architecture Hype Cycle that EA is slowly emerging from the trough of disillusionment after nearly a decade. In this paper we argue that the role and value of EA is often misunderstood, and that EA, specifically the ZFEA for the purpose of this paper, could be considered as a theory given the view of theory within Information Systems (IS). The purpose of IS theories is to analyse, predict, explain and/or prescribe and it could be argued that EA often conform to these purposes. Using the taxonomy of theories as well as the structural components of theory within IS as proposed by Gregor, we motivate that the ZFEA could be regarded as an explanatory theory. Positioning ZFEA as IS explanatory theory provides insight into the role and purpose of the ZFEA (and by extension EA), and could assist researchers and practitioners with mediating the challenges experienced when instituting EA and EAM initiatives within organizations.

@article{441,
  author = {Aurona Gerber and Pierre le Roux and Carike Kearney and Alta van der Merwe},
  title = {The Zachman Framework for Enterprise Architecture: An Explanatory IS Theory},
  abstract = {Enterprise Architecture (EA) has had an interesting and often controversial history since its inception in the late 80’s by pioneers such as John Zachman. Zachman proposed the Zachman Framework for Enterprise Architecture (ZFEA), a descriptive, holistic representation of an enterprise for the purposes of providing insights and understanding. Some scholars claim that EA is an imperative to ensure successful business structures or business-IT alignment, or more recently with Enterprise Architecture Management (EAM), to manage required organizational transformation. However, EA initiatives within companies are often costly and the expected return on investment is not realized. In fact, Gartner recently indicated in their 2018 Enterprise Architecture Hype Cycle that EA is slowly emerging from the trough of disillusionment after nearly a decade. In this paper we argue that the role and value of EA is often misunderstood, and that EA, specifically the ZFEA for the purpose of this paper, could be considered as a theory given the view of theory within Information Systems (IS). The purpose of IS theories is to analyse, predict, explain and/or prescribe and it could be argued that EA often conform to these purposes. Using the taxonomy of theories as well as the structural components of theory within IS as proposed by Gregor, we motivate that the ZFEA could be regarded as an explanatory theory. Positioning ZFEA as IS explanatory theory provides insight into the role and purpose of the ZFEA (and by extension EA), and could assist researchers and practitioners with mediating the challenges experienced when instituting EA and EAM initiatives within organizations.},
  year = {2020},
  journal = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
  volume = {12066},
  pages = {383-396},
  publisher = {Springer},
  address = {Cham},
  isbn = {978-3-030-44999-5},
  url = {https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-44999-5_32},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-030-44999-5_32},
}
Gerber A, le Roux P, van der Merwe A. Enterprise Architecture as Explanatory Information Systems Theory for Understanding Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprise Growth. Sustainability. 2020;12(20). doi:10.3390/su12208517.

Understanding and explaining small- and medium-sized enterprise (SME) growth is important for sustainability from multiple perspectives. Research indicates that SMEs comprise more than 80% of most economies, and their cumulative impact on sustainability considerations is far from trivial. In addition, for sustainability concerns to be prioritized, an SME has to be successful over time. In most developing countries, SMEs play a major role in solving socio-economic challenges. SMEs are an active research topic within the information systems (IS) discipline, often within the enterprise architecture (EA) domain. EA fundamentally adopts a systems perspective to describe the essential elements of a socio-technical organization and their relationships to each other and to the environment in order to understand complexity and manage change. However, despite rapid adoption originally, EA research and practice often fails to deliver on expectations. In some circles, EA became synonymous with projects that are over-budget, over-time and costly without the expected return on investment. In this paper, we argue that EA remains indispensable for understanding and explaining enterprises and that we fundamentally need to revisit some of the applications of EA. We, therefore, executed a research study in two parts. In the first part, we applied IS theory perspectives and adopted the taxonomy and structural components of theory to argue that EA, as represented by the Zachman Framework for Enterprise Architecture (ZFEA), could be adopted as an explanatory IS theory. In the second part of the study, we subsequently analysed multiple case studies from this theoretical basis to investigate whether distinguishable focus patterns could be detected during SME growth. The final results provide evidence that EA, represented through an appropriate framework like the ZFEA, could serve as an explanatory theory for SMEs during start-up, growth and transformation. We identified focus patterns and from these results, it should be possible to understand and explain how SMEs grow. Positioning the ZFEA as explanatory IS theory provides insight into the role and purpose of the ZFEA (and by extension EA), and could assist researchers and practitioners with mediating the challenges experienced by SMEs, and, by extension, enhance sustainable development.

@article{440,
  author = {Aurona Gerber and Pierre le Roux and Alta van der Merwe},
  title = {Enterprise Architecture as Explanatory Information Systems Theory for Understanding Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprise Growth},
  abstract = {Understanding and explaining small- and medium-sized enterprise (SME) growth is important for sustainability from multiple perspectives. Research indicates that SMEs comprise more than 80% of most economies, and their cumulative impact on sustainability considerations is far from trivial. In addition, for sustainability concerns to be prioritized, an SME has to be successful over time. In most developing countries, SMEs play a major role in solving socio-economic challenges. SMEs are an active research topic within the information systems (IS) discipline, often within the enterprise architecture (EA) domain. EA fundamentally adopts a systems perspective to describe the essential elements of a socio-technical organization and their relationships to each other and to the environment in order to understand complexity and manage change. However, despite rapid adoption originally, EA research and practice often fails to deliver on expectations. In some circles, EA became synonymous with projects that are over-budget, over-time and costly without the expected return on investment. In this paper, we argue that EA remains indispensable for understanding and explaining enterprises and that we fundamentally need to revisit some of the applications of EA. We, therefore, executed a research study in two parts. In the first part, we applied IS theory perspectives and adopted the taxonomy and structural components of theory to argue that EA, as represented by the Zachman Framework for Enterprise Architecture (ZFEA), could be adopted as an explanatory IS theory. In the second part of the study, we subsequently analysed multiple case studies from this theoretical basis to investigate whether distinguishable focus patterns could be detected during SME growth. The final results provide evidence that EA, represented through an appropriate framework like the ZFEA, could serve as an explanatory theory for SMEs during start-up, growth and transformation. We identified focus patterns and from these results, it should be possible to understand and explain how SMEs grow. Positioning the ZFEA as explanatory IS theory provides insight into the role and purpose of the ZFEA (and by extension EA), and could assist researchers and practitioners with mediating the challenges experienced by SMEs, and, by extension, enhance sustainable development.},
  year = {2020},
  journal = {Sustainability},
  volume = {12},
  issue = {20},
  isbn = {2071-1050},
  url = {https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/12/20/8517},
  doi = {10.3390/su12208517},
}

2019

van der Merwe A, Gerber A, Smuts H. Guidelines for Conducting Design Science Research in Information Systems. In: SACLA. Springer; 2019. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-35629-3_11.

Information Systems (IS) as a discipline is still young and is continuously involved in building its own research knowledge base. Design Science Research (DSR) in IS is a research strategy for design that has emerged in the last 16 years. IS researchers are often lost when they start with a project in DSR, especially young researchers. We identified a need for a set of guidelines with supporting reference literature that can assist such novice adopters of DSR. We identified major themes relevant to DSR and proposed a set of six guidelines for the novice researcher supported with references summaries of seminal works from the IS DSR literature. We believe that someone new to the field can use these guidelines to prepare him/herself to embark on a DSR study.

@{261,
  author = {Alta van der Merwe and Aurona Gerber and Hanlie Smuts},
  title = {Guidelines for Conducting Design Science Research in Information Systems},
  abstract = {Information Systems (IS) as a discipline is still young and is continuously involved in building its own research knowledge base. Design Science Research (DSR) in IS is a research strategy for design that has emerged in the last 16 years. IS researchers are often lost when they start with a project in DSR, especially young researchers. We identified a need for a set of guidelines with supporting reference literature that can assist such novice adopters of DSR. We identified major themes relevant to DSR and proposed a set of six guidelines for the novice researcher supported with references summaries of seminal works from the IS DSR literature. We believe that someone new to the field can use these guidelines to prepare him/herself to embark on a DSR study.},
  year = {2019},
  journal = {SACLA},
  month = {15/07 - 17/07},
  publisher = {Springer},
  isbn = {978-3-030-35628-6},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-030-35629-3_11},
}
Gerber A, Matthee M. Design Thinking for Pre-empting Digital Disruption. In: Conference on e-Business, e-Services and e-Society. Springer; 2019. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-29374-1_62.

Digital disruption is the phenomenon when established businesses succumb to new business models that exploit emerging technologies. Futurists often make dire predictions when discussing the impact of digital disruption, for instance that 40% of the Fortune 500 companies will disappear within the next decade. The digital disruption phenomenon was already studied two decades ago when Clayton Christensen developed a Theory of Disruptive Innovation, which is a popular theory for describing and explaining disruption due to technology developments that had occurred in the past. However it is still problematic to understand what is necessary to avoid disruption, especially within the context of a sustainable society in the 21st century. A key aspect we identified is the behavior of non-mainstream customers of an emerging technology, which is difficult to predict, especially when an organization is operating in an existing solution space. In this position paper we propose complementing the Theory of Disruptive Innovation with design thinking in order to identify the performance attributes that encourage the unpredictable and unforeseen customer behavior that is a cause for disruption. We employ case-based scenario analysis of higher education as evaluation mechanism for our extended disruptive innovation theory. Our position is that a better understanding of the implicit and unpredictable customer behavior that cause disruption due to additional performance attributes (using design thinking) could assist organizations to pre-empt digital disruption and adapt to support the additional functionality.

@{259,
  author = {Aurona Gerber and Machdel Matthee},
  title = {Design Thinking for Pre-empting Digital Disruption},
  abstract = {Digital disruption is the phenomenon when established businesses succumb to new business models that exploit emerging technologies. Futurists often make dire predictions when discussing the impact of digital disruption, for instance that 40% of the Fortune 500 companies will disappear within the next decade. The digital disruption phenomenon was already studied two decades ago when Clayton Christensen developed a Theory of Disruptive Innovation, which is a popular theory for describing and explaining disruption due to technology developments that had occurred in the past. However it is still problematic to understand what is necessary to avoid disruption, especially within the context of a sustainable society in the 21st century. A key aspect we identified is the behavior of non-mainstream customers of an emerging technology, which is difficult to predict, especially when an organization is operating in an existing solution space. In this position paper we propose complementing the Theory of Disruptive Innovation with design thinking in order to identify the performance attributes that encourage the unpredictable and unforeseen customer behavior that is a cause for disruption. We employ case-based scenario analysis of higher education as evaluation mechanism for our extended disruptive innovation theory. Our position is that a better understanding of the implicit and unpredictable customer behavior that cause disruption due to additional performance attributes (using design thinking) could assist organizations to pre-empt digital disruption and adapt to support the additional functionality.},
  year = {2019},
  journal = {Conference on e-Business, e-Services and e-Society},
  pages = {759 - 770},
  month = {18/09 - 20/09},
  publisher = {Springer},
  isbn = {978-3-030-29373-4},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-030-29374-1_62},
}
Eybers S, Gerber A, Bork D, Karagiannis D. Matching Technology with Enterprise Architecture and Enterprise Architecture Management Tasks Using Task Technology Fit. In: Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing. Springer; 2019. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-20618-5_17.

Advanced modeling is a challenging endeavor and good tool support is of paramount importance to ensure that the modeling objectives are met through the efficient execution of tasks. Tools for advanced modeling should not just support basic task modeling functionality such as easy-to-use interfaces for model creation, but also advanced task functionality such as consistency checks and analysis queries. Enterprise Architecture (EA) is concerned with the alignment of all aspects of an organization. Modeling plays a crucial role in EA and the matching of the correct tool to enable task execution is vital for enterprises engaged with EA. Enterprise Architecture Management (EAM) reflects recent trends that elevate EA toward a strategic management function within organizations. Tool support for EAM would necessarily include the execution of additional and often implicit advanced modeling tasks that support EAM capabilities. In this paper we report on a study that used the Task-Technology Fit (TTF) theory to investigate the extent to which basic and advanced task execution for EAM is supported by technology. We found that four of the six TTF factors fully supported and one partially supported EAM task execution. One factor was inconclusive. This study provided a insight into investigating tool support for EAM related task execution to achieve strategic EAM goals.

@inbook{258,
  author = {Sunet Eybers and Aurona Gerber and Dominik Bork and Dimitris Karagiannis},
  title = {Matching Technology with Enterprise Architecture and Enterprise Architecture Management Tasks Using Task Technology Fit},
  abstract = {Advanced modeling is a challenging endeavor and good tool support is of paramount importance to ensure that the modeling objectives are met through the efficient execution of tasks. Tools for advanced modeling should not just support basic task modeling functionality such as easy-to-use interfaces for model creation, but also advanced task functionality such as consistency checks and analysis queries. Enterprise Architecture (EA) is concerned with the alignment of all aspects of an organization. Modeling plays a crucial role in EA and the matching of the correct tool to enable task execution is vital for enterprises engaged with EA. Enterprise Architecture Management (EAM) reflects recent trends that elevate EA toward a strategic management function within organizations. Tool support for EAM would necessarily include the execution of additional and often implicit advanced modeling tasks that support EAM capabilities. In this paper we report on a study that used the Task-Technology Fit (TTF) theory to investigate the extent to which basic and advanced task execution for EAM is supported by technology. We found that four of the six TTF factors fully supported and one partially supported EAM task execution. One factor was inconclusive. This study provided a insight into investigating tool support for EAM related task execution to achieve strategic EAM goals.},
  year = {2019},
  journal = {Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing},
  pages = {245 - 260},
  publisher = {Springer},
  isbn = {978-3-030-20617-8},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-030-20618-5_17},
}
Thomas A, Gerber A, van der Merwe A. A Conceptual Framework of Research on Visual Language Specification Languages. In: International Conference on Advances in Big Data, Computing and Data Communication Systems (icABCD). Winterton, South Africa: IEEE; 2019. doi:10.1109/ICABCD.2019.8851003.

Visual languages make use of spatial arrangements of graphical and textual elements to represent information. Domain specific diagrams, including flowcharts and music sheets, are examples of visual languages. An established area of research is the study of languages which can be used to create declarative specifications of visual languages. In this paper, the result of a review of research on visual language specification languages is presented. Specifically, a structured literature review is conducted to establish research themes by analysing what has been studied in the context of specification languages. The result of the literature review is used to develop a conceptual framework that consists of six research themes with related topics. Additionally, discussions on how the conceptual framework can be used as a basis to guide research in the field of specification languages, to perform feature based characterisations and to create lists of criteria to evaluate and compare specification languages are included in this paper.

@{255,
  author = {Anitta Thomas and Aurona Gerber and Alta van der Merwe},
  title = {A Conceptual Framework of Research on Visual Language Specification Languages},
  abstract = {Visual languages make use of spatial arrangements of graphical and textual elements to represent information. Domain specific diagrams, including flowcharts and music sheets, are examples of visual languages. An established area of research is the study of languages which can be used to create declarative specifications of visual languages. In this paper, the result of a review of research on visual language specification languages is presented. Specifically, a structured literature review is conducted to establish research themes by analysing what has been studied in the context of specification languages. The result of the literature review is used to develop a conceptual framework that consists of six research themes with related topics. Additionally, discussions on how the conceptual framework can be used as a basis to guide research in the field of specification languages, to perform feature based characterisations and to create lists of criteria to evaluate and compare specification languages are included in this paper.},
  year = {2019},
  journal = {International Conference on Advances in Big Data, Computing and Data Communication Systems (icABCD)},
  month = {05/09 - 06/09},
  publisher = {IEEE},
  address = {Winterton, South Africa},
  isbn = {978-1-5386-9236-3},
  url = {https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8851003},
  doi = {10.1109/ICABCD.2019.8851003},
}

2018

Bork D, Gerber A, Miron E-T, et al. Requirements Engineering for Model-Based Enterprise Architecture Management with ArchiMate. Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing. 2018;332. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-00787-4_2.

The role of information systems (IS) evolved from supporting basic business functions to complex integrated enterprise platforms and ecosystems. As a result, enterprises increasingly adopt enterprise architecture (EA) as a means to manage complexity and support the ability to change. We initiated a study that investigates the pivotal role of enterprise architecture management (EAM) as an essential strategy to manage enterprise change and within this larger context, specifically how the ArchiMate modeling language can be enhanced with capabilities that support EAM. This paper reports on the evaluation of an EA modeling tool (TEAM) which has been enhanced with EAM capabilities. The evaluation was performed by a focus group of enterprise architects that attended a workshop and applied the tool to an EAM case study. The evaluation results, requirements as well as a conceptualization for further development are presented and are of value for both, enterprise architecture researchers and enterprise architects.

@article{444,
  author = {Dominik Bork and Aurona Gerber and Elena-Teodora Miron and Phil van Deventer and Alta van der Merwe and Dimitris Karagiannis and Sunet Eybers and Anna Sumereder},
  title = {Requirements Engineering for Model-Based Enterprise Architecture Management with ArchiMate},
  abstract = {The role of information systems (IS) evolved from supporting basic business functions to complex integrated enterprise platforms and ecosystems. As a result, enterprises increasingly adopt enterprise architecture (EA) as a means to manage complexity and support the ability to change. We initiated a study that investigates the pivotal role of enterprise architecture management (EAM) as an essential strategy to manage enterprise change and within this larger context, specifically how the ArchiMate modeling language can be enhanced with capabilities that support EAM. This paper reports on the evaluation of an EA modeling tool (TEAM) which has been enhanced with EAM capabilities. The evaluation was performed by a focus group of enterprise architects that attended a workshop and applied the tool to an EAM case study. The evaluation results, requirements as well as a conceptualization for further development are presented and are of value for both, enterprise architecture researchers and enterprise architects.},
  year = {2018},
  journal = {Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing},
  volume = {332},
  pages = {16-30},
  publisher = {Springer},
  address = {Cham},
  isbn = {978-3-030-00787-4},
  url = {https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-00787-4_2},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-030-00787-4_2},
}
van der Merwe A, Gerber A. Guidelines for using Bloom’s Taxonomy Table as Alignment Tool between Goals and Assessment. In: SACLA. Springer; 2018.

In academia lecturers are often appointed based on their research profile and not their teaching and learning (T&L) experience. Although universities do emphasize T&L, it might often not even be mentioned during interviews. In the field of education lecturers are more aware of using tools such as Bloom’s Taxonomy during their T&L activities. However, in the field of information systems limited academic papers are available on how lecturers can align their goals with the assessment in their courses. In this paper Bloom’s Taxonomy Table was used to evaluate the alignment of goals of the case and the assessment done on a fourth-year level subject offered in the information systems field. The purpose of the paper was firstly to reflect on the practice of using Bloom’s Taxonomy Table as an evaluation tool and then secondly to provide a set of guidelines for lecturers who want to use Bloom’s Taxonomy Table in alignment studies.

@{260,
  author = {Alta van der Merwe and Aurona Gerber},
  title = {Guidelines for using Bloom’s Taxonomy Table as Alignment Tool between Goals and Assessment},
  abstract = {In academia lecturers are often appointed based on their research profile and not their teaching and learning (T&L) experience. Although universities do emphasize T&L, it might often not even be mentioned during interviews. In the field of education lecturers are more aware of using tools such as Bloom’s Taxonomy during their T&L activities. However, in the field of information systems limited academic papers are available on how lecturers can align their goals with the assessment in their courses. In this paper Bloom’s Taxonomy Table was used to evaluate the alignment of goals of the case and the assessment done on a fourth-year level subject offered in the information systems field. The purpose of the paper was firstly to reflect on the practice of using Bloom’s Taxonomy Table as an evaluation tool and then secondly to provide a set of guidelines for lecturers who want to use Bloom’s Taxonomy Table in alignment studies.},
  year = {2018},
  journal = {SACLA},
  pages = {278 - 290},
  month = {18/06 - 20/06},
  publisher = {Springer},
  isbn = {978-0-720-80192-8},
}
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